1793 Rube Boy Halfpenny Birmingham Token

This is a British token from Birmingham and the obverse reads: BIRMINGHAM HALFPENNY with a boy being a little “rude” hence the nickname “Rude Boy”. The reverse reads: INDUSTRY HAS IT’S SURE REWARDS with a shield and porcupines.

It’s a token reminiscent of U.S. Hard Times Tokens and is collectible. In this condition it can fetch up to $40 or more. There’s several other tokens dated 1793 and these coins can be most attractive in higher grades.

Here’s more similar and related tokens to view or by at ebay 1793 Tokens 


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1683 German Battle Of Vienna Silver Coin

This is a key piece in any 17th century Austrian, German and Polish collection. This piece was minted after the Battle of Vienna in 1683.

One of the most important battles of the 17th century was the battle of Vienna, which was fought on September 12, 1683. The outcome of this battle would have a profound effect on the future of Eastern, if not of all, Europe. The Battle of Vienna was mainly fought by the Turks, with about 15,000 Tatars on their side, against a less numerous combination of Polish, German, and Austrian forces. The Turkish forces were led by the Grand Vizier Kara Mustafa, an ambitious man, but who wasn’t a very good general judging by the number of battles he had lost. The opposing forces were led by Jan Sobieski.

On May 21, 1674, Sobieski was elected king as John III by the Diet. This was after the death of King Michael Wisniowiecki the previous year, on November 10. Sobieski was an intelligent, talented, and a brave man. He was also a patriot of Poland and always wanted the best for his country.

Since about March the Turks were preparing for an attack on the Hapsburg capital, Vienna, and were gathering their forces together rather rapidly. By June, they had invaded Austria, and King Leopold and his court fled to Passau. On July 14, the Turks reached Vienna. They laid siege to the great city. One of the disadvantages that the Turks had was that they did not have sufficient heavy artillery. The defenders fought bravely but their food supply and their ammunition were growing low. The Turks had made some breaches in the walls but their effort was hindered by the barricades erected by the people of Vienna.

Earlier that year on March 31, 1683, King John III had signed the Treaty of Warsaw with the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold. In this treaty, it was agreed to come to one’s aid if the Turks attacked either Krakow or Vienna. Following his agreement in the treaty and the appeal of the pope, Sobieski marched to Vienna with an army of about 30,000 men. Sobieski said that his purpose for going to Vienna was “to proceed to the Holy War, and with God’s help to give back the old freedom to besieged Vienna, and thereby help wavering Christendom.”

Upon reaching Vienna, he joined up with the Austrians and Germans. Sobieski planned to attack on the 13th of September, but he had noticed that the Turkish resistance was weak. When he ordered full attack, he completely surprised Kara Mustafa. Sobieski and his husaria, which is Polish heavy cavalry, alongside with the cooperation of all whole army, played an important role in the victory. Sobieski with his husaria charged toward Kara Mustafa’s headquarters and seeing this, Mustafa’s army fled in panic. Even so, the Turkish army suffered heavy losses. This victory freed Europe from the Ottoman Turks and their invasions and secured Christianity as the main religion in all of Europe.

After the Battle Jan Sobieski entered Vienna in glory. The King and his Polish army had won lots of fame after their victory. Jan III Sobieski was not only looked upon as the savior of Vienna, but as a savior of the whole Europe from the Ottoman Turks.

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1632 Austrian Thaler Archduke Leopold Wilhelm

Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria (Wiener Neustadt January 5, 1614 -Vienna November 20, 1662), was a military commander, Governor of the Spanish Netherlands from 1647 to 1656, and a patron of the arts.

He was the youngest son of Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II and Maria Anna of Bavaria (1574–1616), daughter of William V, Duke of Bavaria. His elder brother became Emperor Ferdinand III (1608–1657). Leopold served as general in the Thirty Years’ War. Even though Leopold Wilhelm lacked the theological qualification he was invested – with the help of his father – with a number of prince-bishoprics in order to provide him with a truly princely income.

Unqualified as he was, he officially only held the title administrator – nevertheless realising the full episcopal revenues – of the prince-bishopric of Halberstadt (1628–1648), the prince-bishopric of Passau (1625–1662), the prince-archbishopric of Breslau (1656–1662), prince-bishopric of Olmütz (1637–1662) and the prince-bishopric of Strasbourg (1626–1662). In 1635 Pope Urban VIII provided him to become the prince-archbishop of Bremen, but due to its occupation by the Swedes he never gained de facto power.

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German Coins – Mint Mark Identification

  1. A : Berlin 1750 to date
  2. A : Clausthal (Hannover) 1833-1849
  3. B : Bayreuth, Franconia (Prussia) 1750-1804
  4. B : Breslau (Prussia, Silesia) 1750-1826
  5. B : Brunswick (Brunswick) 1850-1860
  6. B : Brunswick (Westphalia) 1809-1813
  7. B : Dresdan (Saxony) 1861-1872
  8. B : Hannover (Brunswick) 1860-1871
  9. B : Hannover (East Friesland) 1823-1825
  10. B : Hannover (German Unification) 1872-1878
  11. B : Hannover (Hannover) 1821-1866
  12. B : Hannover (Prussia) 1866-1873
  13. B : Regensburg (Regensburg) 1809
  14. B.H.: Frankfurt (Free City of Frankfurt) 1808
  15. B (rosette) H-Regensburg (Rhenis Confederation) 1802-1812
  16. C : Cassel (Westphalla) 1810-1813
  17. C : Clausthal (Brunswick)
  18. C : Clausthal (Hannover) 1813-1834
  19. C : Clausthal (Westphalla) 1810-1811
  20. C : Dresden (Saxony) 1779-1804
  21. C : Frankfurt (German Unification) 1866-1879
  22. D : Aurich (East Friesland under Prussia) 1750-1806
  23. D : Dusseldorf, Rhineland (Prussia) 1816-1848
  24. D : Munich (Germany) 1872 to date
  25. E : Dresden (Saxony) 1872-1887
  26. E : Muldenhutten (Germany) 1887-1953
  27. F : Dresden (Saxony) 181845-1858
  28. F : Magdeburg (Prussia) 1750-1806
  29. F : Cassel (Hess-Cassel) 1803-1807
  30. F : Stuttgart (Germany) 1872 to date
  31. G : Dresden (Saxony) 1833-1844, 1850-1854
  32. G : Glatz (Prussia Silesia) 1807-1809
  33. G : Karlsruhe (Germany) 1872 to date
  34. G : Stattin in Pomererania (Prussia) 1750-1806
  35. GN-BW – Bamberg (Bamberg)
  36. H : Darmstadt (German Unification) 1872-1882
  37. H : Dresden (Saxony) 1804-1812
  38. H.K. – Rostock (Rostock) 1862-1864
  39. I : Hamburg (Germany)
  40. J : Hamburg (Germany) 1873 to date
  41. J : Paris (Westphallia) 1808-1809
  42. M.C. : Brunswick (Brunswick) 1813-14, 1820
  43. P.R. : Dusseldorf (Julich-Berg) 1783-1804
  44. S : Dresden (Saxony) 1813-1832
  45. S : Hannover (Hannover) 1839-1844
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1859 Frankfurt Commem. Taler

This Taler commemorates Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (10 November 1759 – 9 May 1805). He was a poet, philosopher, historian, and playwright. During the last seventeen years of his life (1788–1805), Schiller struck up a productive, if complicated, friendship with already famous and influential Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. They frequently discussed issues concerning aesthetics, and Schiller encouraged Goethe to finish works he left as sketches. This relationship and these discussions led to a period now referred to as Weimar Classicism. They also worked together on Die Xenien, a collection of short satirical poems in which both Schiller and Goethe challenge opponents to their philosophical vision.

The reverse eagle design dates back to the time of Charlemagne (742–814). It served as a metaphor of invincibility. In 1433 the double-headed eagle was adopted for the first time by the Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund. Since then the double-headed eagle came to be used as the symbol of the German emperor, and hence as the coat of arms of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation.

Mintage 20,000

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1848 Frankfurt 2 Gulden Commemorative

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Identify The Date Of A Coin With Roman Numerals


Roman numerals, though rarely used today for anything other than copyright dates were in very common use amongst our ancestors as little as 100 years ago to express the dates on coinage. They convey a sense of classicism and stateliness, and can be a very useful acquisition in the pursuit of numismatic knowledge, especially if your collecting interest is medals or pre-20th century European coinage.

First of all, here is a chart of Roman numerals and their Arabic numeral equivalents:

I – 1

V – 5

X – 10

L – 50

C – 100

D – 500

M – 1,000

Now I will discuss how to apply these to practical use.

American Roman numerals:

If you are using a number such as 50, you simply use the numeral for that number.

In most cases, the number will not be a round number like 50. Whenever a larger numeral is front of a smaller numeral, the two numerals are added together.


CXXVI – 126

If a smaller numeral is in front of a larger numeral, that smaller numeral is subtracted from the larger numeral.


XC – 90

Here’s a list of the more advanced numerals:

IV – 4

IX – 9

XL – 40

XC – 90

CD – 400

CM – 900

With this knowledge, you can translate any coin dated in Roman numerals to Arabic numerals. Here are a few examples:

MCMLXIV – 1964



European Roman numerals:

The only major difference between European and American Roman numerals is that Europeans sometimes do not use the same Roman numerals for numbers beginning in 4. Instead of subtracting a numeral for a number beginning in 1 from one beginning in 4, some Europeans add four numbers beginning in 1 (such as XXXX instead of XL).

NOTE: As Roman numerals are nearly always used for dates, higher numbers are rarely used. To express a number higher than 1,000 (M), a horizontal line is placed above a numeral, indicating that numeral is 1,000 times it’s normal value (for instance, if a V has a horizontal line over it, it translates to 5,000 instead of 5).

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