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This is a key piece in any 17th century Austrian, German and Polish collection. This piece was minted after the Battle of Vienna in 1683.
One of the most important battles of the 17th century was the battle of Vienna, which was fought on September 12, 1683. The outcome of this battle would have a profound effect on the future of Eastern, if not of all, Europe. The Battle of Vienna was mainly fought by the Turks, with about 15,000 Tatars on their side, against a less numerous combination of Polish, German, and Austrian forces. The Turkish forces were led by the Grand Vizier Kara Mustafa, an ambitious man, but who wasn’t a very good general judging by the number of battles he had lost. The opposing forces were led by Jan Sobieski.
On May 21, 1674, Sobieski was elected king as John III by the Diet. This was after the death of King Michael Wisniowiecki the previous year, on November 10. Sobieski was an intelligent, talented, and a brave man. He was also a patriot of Poland and always wanted the best for his country.
Since about March the Turks were preparing for an attack on the Hapsburg capital, Vienna, and were gathering their forces together rather rapidly. By June, they had invaded Austria, and King Leopold and his court fled to Passau. On July 14, the Turks reached Vienna. They laid siege to the great city. One of the disadvantages that the Turks had was that they did not have sufficient heavy artillery. The defenders fought bravely but their food supply and their ammunition were growing low. The Turks had made some breaches in the walls but their effort was hindered by the barricades erected by the people of Vienna.
Earlier that year on March 31, 1683, King John III had signed the Treaty of Warsaw with the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold. In this treaty, it was agreed to come to one’s aid if the Turks attacked either Krakow or Vienna. Following his agreement in the treaty and the appeal of the pope, Sobieski marched to Vienna with an army of about 30,000 men. Sobieski said that his purpose for going to Vienna was “to proceed to the Holy War, and with God’s help to give back the old freedom to besieged Vienna, and thereby help wavering Christendom.”
Upon reaching Vienna, he joined up with the Austrians and Germans. Sobieski planned to attack on the 13th of September, but he had noticed that the Turkish resistance was weak. When he ordered full attack, he completely surprised Kara Mustafa. Sobieski and his husaria, which is Polish heavy cavalry, alongside with the cooperation of all whole army, played an important role in the victory. Sobieski with his husaria charged toward Kara Mustafa’s headquarters and seeing this, Mustafa’s army fled in panic. Even so, the Turkish army suffered heavy losses. This victory freed Europe from the Ottoman Turks and their invasions and secured Christianity as the main religion in all of Europe.
After the Battle Jan Sobieski entered Vienna in glory. The King and his Polish army had won lots of fame after their victory. Jan III Sobieski was not only looked upon as the savior of Vienna, but as a savior of the whole Europe from the Ottoman Turks.
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Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria (Wiener Neustadt January 5, 1614 -Vienna November 20, 1662), was a military commander, Governor of the Spanish Netherlands from 1647 to 1656, and a patron of the arts.
He was the youngest son of Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II and Maria Anna of Bavaria (1574–1616), daughter of William V, Duke of Bavaria. His elder brother became Emperor Ferdinand III (1608–1657). Leopold served as general in the Thirty Years’ War. Even though Leopold Wilhelm lacked the theological qualification he was invested – with the help of his father – with a number of prince-bishoprics in order to provide him with a truly princely income.
Unqualified as he was, he officially only held the title administrator – nevertheless realising the full episcopal revenues – of the prince-bishopric of Halberstadt (1628–1648), the prince-bishopric of Passau (1625–1662), the prince-archbishopric of Breslau (1656–1662), prince-bishopric of Olmütz (1637–1662) and the prince-bishopric of Strasbourg (1626–1662). In 1635 Pope Urban VIII provided him to become the prince-archbishop of Bremen, but due to its occupation by the Swedes he never gained de facto power.
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- A : Berlin 1750 to date
- A : Clausthal (Hannover) 1833-1849
- B : Bayreuth, Franconia (Prussia) 1750-1804
- B : Breslau (Prussia, Silesia) 1750-1826
- B : Brunswick (Brunswick) 1850-1860
- B : Brunswick (Westphalia) 1809-1813
- B : Dresdan (Saxony) 1861-1872
- B : Hannover (Brunswick) 1860-1871
- B : Hannover (East Friesland) 1823-1825
- B : Hannover (German Unification) 1872-1878
- B : Hannover (Hannover) 1821-1866
- B : Hannover (Prussia) 1866-1873
- B : Regensburg (Regensburg) 1809
- B.H.: Frankfurt (Free City of Frankfurt) 1808
- B (rosette) H-Regensburg (Rhenis Confederation) 1802-1812
- C : Cassel (Westphalla) 1810-1813
- C : Clausthal (Brunswick)
- C : Clausthal (Hannover) 1813-1834
- C : Clausthal (Westphalla) 1810-1811
- C : Dresden (Saxony) 1779-1804
- C : Frankfurt (German Unification) 1866-1879
- D : Aurich (East Friesland under Prussia) 1750-1806
- D : Dusseldorf, Rhineland (Prussia) 1816-1848
- D : Munich (Germany) 1872 to date
- E : Dresden (Saxony) 1872-1887
- E : Muldenhutten (Germany) 1887-1953
- F : Dresden (Saxony) 181845-1858
- F : Magdeburg (Prussia) 1750-1806
- F : Cassel (Hess-Cassel) 1803-1807
- F : Stuttgart (Germany) 1872 to date
- G : Dresden (Saxony) 1833-1844, 1850-1854
- G : Glatz (Prussia Silesia) 1807-1809
- G : Karlsruhe (Germany) 1872 to date
- G : Stattin in Pomererania (Prussia) 1750-1806
- GN-BW – Bamberg (Bamberg)
- H : Darmstadt (German Unification) 1872-1882
- H : Dresden (Saxony) 1804-1812
- H.K. – Rostock (Rostock) 1862-1864
- I : Hamburg (Germany)
- J : Hamburg (Germany) 1873 to date
- J : Paris (Westphallia) 1808-1809
- M.C. : Brunswick (Brunswick) 1813-14, 1820
- P.R. : Dusseldorf (Julich-Berg) 1783-1804
- S : Dresden (Saxony) 1813-1832
- S : Hannover (Hannover) 1839-1844
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This Taler commemorates Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (10 November 1759 – 9 May 1805). He was a poet, philosopher, historian, and playwright. During the last seventeen years of his life (1788–1805), Schiller struck up a productive, if complicated, friendship with already famous and influential Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. They frequently discussed issues concerning aesthetics, and Schiller encouraged Goethe to finish works he left as sketches. This relationship and these discussions led to a period now referred to as Weimar Classicism. They also worked together on Die Xenien, a collection of short satirical poems in which both Schiller and Goethe challenge opponents to their philosophical vision.
The reverse eagle design dates back to the time of Charlemagne (742–814). It served as a metaphor of invincibility. In 1433 the double-headed eagle was adopted for the first time by the Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund. Since then the double-headed eagle came to be used as the symbol of the German emperor, and hence as the coat of arms of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation.
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Roman numerals, though rarely used today for anything other than copyright dates were in very common use amongst our ancestors as little as 100 years ago to express the dates on coinage. They convey a sense of classicism and stateliness, and can be a very useful acquisition in the pursuit of numismatic knowledge, especially if your collecting interest is medals or pre-20th century European coinage.
First of all, here is a chart of Roman numerals and their Arabic numeral equivalents:
I – 1
V – 5
X – 10
L – 50
C – 100
D – 500
M – 1,000
Now I will discuss how to apply these to practical use.
American Roman numerals:
If you are using a number such as 50, you simply use the numeral for that number.
In most cases, the number will not be a round number like 50. Whenever a larger numeral is front of a smaller numeral, the two numerals are added together.
CXXVI – 126
If a smaller numeral is in front of a larger numeral, that smaller numeral is subtracted from the larger numeral.
XC – 90
Here’s a list of the more advanced numerals:
IV – 4
IX – 9
XL – 40
XC – 90
CD – 400
CM – 900
With this knowledge, you can translate any coin dated in Roman numerals to Arabic numerals. Here are a few examples:
MCMLXIV – 1964
MDCCCXCIX – 1899
MDCCLXXVI – 1776
European Roman numerals:
The only major difference between European and American Roman numerals is that Europeans sometimes do not use the same Roman numerals for numbers beginning in 4. Instead of subtracting a numeral for a number beginning in 1 from one beginning in 4, some Europeans add four numbers beginning in 1 (such as XXXX instead of XL).
NOTE: As Roman numerals are nearly always used for dates, higher numbers are rarely used. To express a number higher than 1,000 (M), a horizontal line is placed above a numeral, indicating that numeral is 1,000 times it’s normal value (for instance, if a V has a horizontal line over it, it translates to 5,000 instead of 5).
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Collecting German Thalers can be very fun and interesting. The history behind the coins are the most interesting aspect of collecting them. One thing I should point out, is the art work on some of the these large Thalers, are just amazing. You can collect ones with religious themes on them, or ones that have city views. If your into collecting by coat of arms, than you will not be disappointed. One area I find very interesting and possibly the most historical, are the commemorative issues. Within the commemorative issues, you can collect the Thalers that commemorate the deaths of Kings, Dukes, Queens and the births of Royal family children and grandchildren.
To make a Thaler collection specialized, you should decide what Thalers you want to collect. As stated earlier within this article, there are many types to collect. A lessen I learnt the hard way, is not to let yourself get carried away. Do not think you can collect one Thaler from every German State, Duchy, Bishopric or Free Cities. It is almost impossible to do. You would have to be a multi-millionaire to do this.
Ok, so now lets look at how to put together a very nice collection of Thalers. First off, I would recommend getting the Davenport books on German Thalers. These books are the most comprehensive works on German Thalers. After doing some intensive studying, you want to find out which types of Thalers you want to collect. The reason I state to do some research, is do to the fact that there are many interesting types. If you find out that you may be interested in collecting varieties within a series. Than you must also understand that some of the varieties can be very expensive. Without a good book that covers these varieties, you can become lost very fast. Not only lost on which Thalers are rare, but also which ones are most sought after. A good book will also help you with knowing how many minor and major die changes there are within a series. So, as you can see, the old saying of buy the book before the coin does hold true.
Next, would be to find out which Thalers you find are the most interesting. As stated earlier within this article, there are many States, Duchies, Bishoprics and Free Cities within the Holy Roman Empire to pick from. The Free Cities are very interesting with City Views on the reverse of the coin. City View Thalers are very popular, and most are rare to find in high grade mint state.
So find out which category of Thalers you want to study up on. As you can see there are many types to collect. One series I’ve forgotten to mention, is the metallic issues. These Thalers are medals, but were given legal tender. These issues have some of the nicest designs on them.
The most important part in assembling a collection, is to have some type of order within it. If you plan on collecting by State, than look at collecting one or two States. This way your collection will be more specialized, and not one that looks just thrown together. Look at collecting Thalers from both the 17th and 18th centuries. Some of the Rulers did rule during both centuries. Doing it this way, you can include the commemorative Thalers of the Ruler. Such as a 25th year of Reign, or a Thaler commemorating the Rulers age and one that commemorates his death. You can also collect Thalers that show the Ruler on a horse, holding his sword or scepter. Or, you can collect a Ruler dressed in his armor. As you can see there are many ways to assemble a nice interesting Thaler collection. This is were a good specialized book comes as a must have.
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Varieties by German State 1900-1918
This list covers 2, 3 and 5 Mark coins
Baden – Mint Mark: G
1902 to 1907 5Mark coin
I’ve not seen enough of these to know what the varieties are
Bavaria – Mint Mark: D
2Mark 1901 to 1908 and then 1912 to 1913. The variety is the open and closed hair curl on the top of Otto’s head. It is a very noticeable curl.
The 3Mark coin 1908 to 1918 has the same variety as the 2Mark coin.
The 5Mark coin 1901 to 1904 and then 1906 to 1908. Minted again in 1913. The same variety as the 2Mark and 3Mark coins.
Burnswick-Wolfenbuttel – Mint Mark: A
3Mark 1915. Some of the coins have U LUNEB added to the obverse. The coins without the U LUNEB added are the most sought after, with only 1,700 being minted.
The 5Mark coin has the same variety as the 3Mark coin, with only 1,400 being minted without the U LUNEB added.
Wurttemberg – Mint Mark: F
3Mark commemorative (25th Wedding Anniversary) 1911. The letter H on the obverse in the name Charlotte, is known to have a Low Bar H and a High Bar H. The High Bar H is the most sought after, with a mintage of 7,000.
Its is very easy to tell the difference between a LOW BAR H and the High Bar H. If the H looks normal with the cross bar in the middle,..than it is a Low Bar. If the cross bar looks to be higher up and not in the middle, than it is a High Bar.
These are the only varieties that I know of during the time period covering 1900 to 1918.
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World Coin Silver Values